There are many theories on the mind and many different terms used to describe how the mind works. For example, the term “Ego” can mean different things in different contexts.
Dictionary.com lists six distinct definitions for ego, the first two of which are the ones most commonly used in popular culture. Although these terms are commonly used (sometimes interchangeably) they are quite different. The first definition is:
the “I” or self of any person; a person as thinking, feeling, and willing, and distinguishing itself from the selves of others and from objects of its thought.
the part of the psychic apparatus that experiences and reacts to the outside world and thus mediates between the primitive drives of the id and the demands of the social and physical environment [also known as the ‘super ego’].
Similarly there appear to be parallels between the super ego and the prefrontal cortex. Both of these concepts can think logically and use language. The prefrontal cortex is able to receive the urging from the limbic system but then use reason to decide whether it makes sense to act on it. The super ego challenges the id in a similar but slightly different (more moralistic) way.
The freudian ego and the true self do not seem to be similar concepts. The freudian ego is similar to the prefrontal cortex in that it receives advice from the id and the super ego and decides the best course. The true self is mostly awareness combined with compassion and a small amount of will. This is more of a spiritual concept.
Then there is thinking and feeling overlaid on these structures. Thinking is labeling, conceptualizing, making into words, reasoning, planning remembering. Feeling is a physical sensation in the body in the body connected to an emotion such as happiness, sadness, fear. Feeling is more primitive but it is also more honest. Thinking is more advanced but can engage in falsehoods.
The conclusion seems to be that there are many overlapping concepts use to describe the mind and its functions. But they do not fit together seamlessly and can cause confusion. The reality is that all these concepts do overlap in a manner that is probably not understood completely by any one (or perhaps all) schools of thought. It might not even be helpful to design an entire system to encompass them all. Where would that get us anyway?